HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action  

HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action

  HIV / AIDS and sexually transmitted infections
  care, support and prevention

 

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Steps to making sex safer
HIV/AIDS Resource Pack
 


 HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted infections - care, support and prevention - AIDS action
 

Practical information for health
workers, educators and community
carers on HIV, AIDS and sexually
transmitted infections covering care,
support and prevention.

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Issues Menu
Table of Contents of All Issues
Issues in pdf
 
Subject Index
 

bulletBlood safety
bulletChildren
bulletClinical Care
bulletDevelopment and Socio-Economic Issues
bulletEducation and Prevention Strategies
bulletHealth Workers' Training and Education
bulletHIV Testing and Counselling
bulletHome and Community Care
bulletHuman Rights
bulletOpportunistic Infections
bulletProject planning - CARE
bulletProject/Programme Management and Evaluation
bulletSafer Sex
bulletSchool based Education and Work with Youth
bulletSex Workers' Education
bulletSelf-help Groups/People living with HIV/AIDS
bulletSTDs
bulletWomen
bulletWorkplace Education
 

top of pageCaring with confidence

Acknowledgements
Introduction
 
Section 1: How HIV and AIDS affect young children
 

bullet1.1  Children infected with HIV
bulletFacts about HIV/AIDS and children
bulletWhere are children most affected?
bulletHow does HIV/AIDS affect child health?
bullet1.2  Children affected by HIV
bulletImpact of HIV/AIDS on infant and child mortality
bullet1.3  Children vulnerable to HIV
 

Section 2: Preventing HIV infection in young children
 

bullet2.1 Mother-to-child transmission
bulletHow is HIV transmitted to children?
bulletWhen is HIV transmitted?
bulletRisk factors
bullet2.2 Preventing and treating HIV infection in women
bulletPreventing infection in women
bulletFactors which increase HIV risk
bulletHow Improved STD control can reduce HIV transmission
bulletIf a woman already has HIV infection
bulletHIV and women's reproductive choices
bulletAntiretroviral therapy
bullet2.3 Breastfeeding
bulletPreventing HIV transmission through breastfeeding
bullet1. Consider the possibility that the mother may have HIV
bulletCounselling and testing
bullet2. Help the mother to make a decision about infant feeding
bulletBreastfeeding and HIV: assessing the risk
bullet3. Advise the mother about how to feed the infant safely
bulletModified breastfeeding
bulletAlternatives to breastfeeding
bulletReducing the risks associated with giving alternatives to breastmilk
bullet4. Follow up the infant's growth and general health
bullet2.4 Other interventions to reduce transmission
bulletImproving nutrition during pregnancy
bulletWhat can health workers do?
bulletSafe delivery at home
bulletMedical procedures during pregnancy and delivery
bullet2.5 Transmission through blood transfusion
bulletPreventing transmission through blood transfusion
bullet2.6 Acquired infection
 

Section 3: Diagnosis, treatment and care
 

bullet3.1 Diagnosis and testing of infected children
bulletDiagnosis
bulletClinical signs and symptoms
bulletHIV counselling and testing
bulletBirth to 6 Months
bulletIssues to consider in testing children for HIV
bulletDiagnostic tests
bullet3.2 Treatment and care
bulletBasic care and support needs for all children - with and without HIV
bulletPrevention, treatment and supportive care at home
bulletPreventing transmission of HIV at home
bulletHelping children to stay well
bullet Nutrition and children with HIV and AIDS
bulletFeeding and illness
bulletSafe preparation of food
bulletTaking care of common conditions
bulletHow to give oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution
bulletHow to make gentian violet solution
bulletGiving medicines to children
bulletManagement of common infections at primary care level
bulletClinical follow-up
bulletReferral and treatment
bulletImmunisation: protecting against common childhood infections
bulletPalliative care in terminal HIV/AIDS
bulletDrugs for treatment of children with HIV and AIDS
bullet3.3 Affected children
bulletWhat can health workers do?
bulletChild rights and HIV and AIDS
bulletCommunity-based support programme
bulletStrategies for dealing with children orphaned by HIV and AIDS
 

Section 4: Issues for health workers
 

bullet4.1 Pressures on health workers
bullet4.2 Preventing transmission in health facilities
bulletPreventing tuberculosis
bulletSafety precautions
bulletCare after exposure
bullet4.3 Advising and counselling caregivers
bulletChildren living positively
bulletTalking to children about HIV and AIDS
bulletConfidentiality and children
bulletDealing with illness and death in a young child
bulletDealing with children's questions
bulletPlanning for a child's future
 

Section 5: Selected resources
 

Glossary

Appendix 1 - Basic Facts about HIV and AIDS

Appendix 2 - Example of a workshop to explore issues around HIV/AIDS and young children
 

top of pageHIV and safe motherhood

Acknowledgements
Definitions

Introduction

Section 1 Before parenthood
 

bulletAvoiding infection
bulletReproductive rights and choices
bulletImproving access to contraception
bulletAbortion
bulletGetting pregnant


Section 2 HIV in pregnancy
 

  1. Mother-to-child transmission

  2. Keeping all mothers healthy

  3. Caring for women who know they are HIV positive


Section 3 Voluntary counselling and testing for HIV
 

bulletCounselling
bulletTesting for HIV


Section 4 Care during labour and delivery
 

bulletGeneral care during labour
bulletElective caesarean section
bulletAntiretroviral therapy


Section 5 Infant feeding and HIV
 

bulletInternational guidelines
bulletDeciding whether to breastfeed
bulletEssential information for HIV-positive women
bulletAlternatives to breastfeeding
bulletExclusive breastfeeding
bulletStopping breastfeeding early


Section 6 What else can health workers do?
 

bulletNo need to feel helpless
bulletBecoming more at ease with sexuality
bulletSafe working practices
bulletMaking the most of limited resources


Section 7 Resources
 

top of pageHIV testing: a practical approach

Definitions
Introduction

Section 1  Why test for HIV?
 

bullet1.1  When are HIV tests used?
bullet1.2  Questions to consider before implementing HIV testing
bullet1.3  What are the advantages of voluntary HIV testing?
bullet1.4  What are the disadvantages of voluntary HIV testing?
bullet1.5  What problems are associated with mandatory testing?
 

Section 2  Deciding which tests to use
 

bullet2.1  HIV antibody tests
bullet2.2  Tests to detect the virus
bullet2.3  of the test
bullet2.4  Different tests for different purposes
bullet2.5  Choice of test
 

Section 3  Screening blood for transfusion
 

bullet3.1  Reducing the risk of transfusing infected blood
bullet3.2  Information for blood donors
 

Section 4  Implementing HIV testing for individuals
 

bullet4.1  Requirements for testing individuals
bullet4.2  Situations with limited resources
bullet4.3  Counselling for voluntary HIV testing
bullet4.4  Pre-test counselling
bullet4.5  Post-test counselling
bullet4.6  Being prepared for different situations
bullet4.7  Confidentiality
bullet4.8  Problems with implementing counselling services
bullet4.9  HIV testing for particular groups
 

Section 5  Screening for surveillance
  
Appendix 1  Considering HIV testing and testing strategies
Appendix 2  Characteristics of some selected HIV tests
 
Resources
Organisations
Questionnaire
 

top of pageMaking Sex Work Safe

Acknowledgements
Foreword

1  Commercial sex in context
 

bullet1.1  Commercial sex in context
bulletCommercial sex and public health
bulletResponses
bulletWhy this handbook?
bullet1.2  What is in this handbook?
bulletDeveloping programmes and projects
bulletSuccessful strategies
bullet1.3  Commercial sex: complex issues
bulletCommercial sex will continue
bulletSex workers cannot do it alone
bulletOn sex workers' terms
bullet1.4  Understanding sex work
bulletThe sex industry, formal and informal
bulletWho are clients?
bulletWho are sex workers?
bulletWomen
bulletMen
bulletTransgender sex workers
bulletPartners of sex workers
bulletCommercial sex business owners and managers
 

2  Developing a policy framework
  

bullet2.1  Policies and philosophies
bulletCore values
bulletIndividual experiences
bulletManagement principles
bulletStaff and skills
bulletCommercial sex and the law
bulletA perspective on law reform
bullet2.2  STD/HIV policy
bulletLiving with HIV and the double stigma
bullet2.3  Coercion and human rights
bulletYoung people and sexual exploitation
bulletTrafficking
bulletSex tourism
bullet2.4 Drug policy
 

3  Strategies for education
  

bullet 3.1 Information and education
bulletfor sex workers
bulletfor clients
bulletfor "influencers"
bullet3.2 Methods
bulletPeer education
bulletOutreach
bulletGroup education sessions
bulletEducational materials
bulletCounselling
 

4  Enabling strategies
  

bullet 4.1  STD services and condoms
bulletProviding good STD services
bulletDistribution of condoms and lubricants
bulletHealth information needs
bullet 4.2  Other services and skills training
bulletSkills training
bulletLegal assistance and welfare services
bulletEconomic development programmes
bullet 4.3  Community development
bulletSelf-organisation
bulletCommunity strengthening activities
bulletAnti-violence activities
bulletPolice liaison
bulletRescue and rehabilitation
bullet 4.4  Advocacy and civil rights
bulletAdvocacy in the community
bulletCivil rights
bulletOrganising for better work conditions
bulletBetter conditions lead to safer services
bulletMedia
bullet 4.5  People living with HIV/AIDS
bulletHIV positive sex worker needs
 

5  Safe (commercial) sex
 

bullet5.1  Analysing safe (commercial) sex
bulletStrengths
bulletWeaknesses
bulletOpportunities
bulletThreats
bullet5.2  Negotiating safe sex
bullet5.3  Knowledge and skills
bulletUsing condoms
bulletOral sex
bulletNon-penetrative sex and fantasies
bulletKissing
bulletDouching and cleaning
bulletMicrobicides
bulletThe female condom
bulletMenstruation management
bulletSafe transgender sex
bulletRecognising STD symptoms
 

6 Health and safety for mobile populations and drug users
 

bullet6.1  Migration, mobility and health
bulletTypes of mobility
bulletHealth promotion and care
bullet6.2  Strategies for drug users
bulletHarm reduction
bulletOther injecting substances
bulletNon-injectable drugs
bulletWomen's health and drug use
 

7  Making projects successful
   

bullet 7.1  Assessing needs
bulletWhat is the situation?
bulletWho should be involved?
bulletWhat are the sexual health needs?
bulletWhat sexual services are practised?
bulletHow is sex work organised?
bulletWhat STD services are used?
bulletDo services and projects already exist?
bulletWhat policies do services have?
bulletWhat is the legal context?
bullet7.2  Assessment techniques
bulletGathering existing information
bulletCollecting new information
bullet7.3  Project planning and design
bulletMaking sense of the problems
bulletTurning problems into objectives
bulletActivities
bulletMeasuring change
bulletIdentifying assumptions
bullet7.4  Monitoring and evaluation
bulletIs the project working?
bulletMonitoring
bulletStart at the beginning
bulletTypes of evaluation
bullet7.5  Project planning: an exercise
 

Further reading

Key information sources and suppliers
 

top of pageMen's sexual health matters

Acknowledgements
Definitions
Introduction
 

bullet1  Working with men
 
bulletWhat is sexual health?
bulletWhy work with men?
 
bullet2  Starting work with men
 
bulletFinding out about men and sexuality
bulletACTIVITY Understanding men
bulletACTIVITY Enjoying sex
bulletACTIVITY Men's beliefs about sex
bulletACTIVITY Three-way role play
bulletImproving communication
bulletACTIVITY Talking about sex
bulletSensitive issues
bulletACTIVITY Working on sensitive issues
bulletACTIVITY Preparing to deal with disclosure of sexual abuse
 
bullet3  Effective approaches
 
bulletCreating the right environment
bulletACTIVITY Understanding other people
bulletSupport groups
bulletMen and health services
bulletDifferent men, different needs
bulletACTIVITY Me and my father
 
bullet4  Sexual development and function
 
bulletSexual response and sexual feelings
bulletSexual development and puberty
bulletACTIVITY Reviewing your sex life
bulletACTIVITY Changes during puberty
bulletSex - safe and healthy
bulletGenital care and hygiene
bulletACTIVITY Contraceptive methods
 
bullet5  Common sexual problems
 
bulletLoss of desire
bulletPhysical disability
bulletPenis and erection problems
bulletEjaculation difficulties
bulletACTIVITY Ejaculation control
bulletProblems with testicles
bulletProstate problems
bulletInfertility
bulletSexually transmitted infections
 
bulletResources and organisations
 

top of pageStarting the Discussion: Steps to Making Sex Safer

Acknowledgements

Part 1  Understanding People's Behaviour
 

bullet Information is not enough
bullet Making change possible
bullet Talking about sex and relationships
bulletActivities
bullet Listening survey
bullet Focus group discussion
 

Part 2  Communicating for Change
 

bullet Working towards better communication
bullet Your role in information sharing
bullet Tips for trainers
 

Part 3  Working with Groups
 

Activities
 

bulletBuilding on Knowledge
bullet 1 Finding the gaps
bullet2 Check your beliefs
bullet3 Talking about sex
 
bulletThinking about Risk
bullet 4 Risks and results
bullet5 Most risk/least risk
bullet 6 Taking the risk and passing it on
 
bulletExploring Attitudes and Feelings
bullet 7 Agree/disagree
bullet 8 Thinking about sex differences
bullet 9 Talking about making sex safer
bullet 10 Digging deeper
 
bulletPractising New Skills
bullet 11 Learning about condoms
bullet 12 Using role play
 
bulletProblem-Solving and Decision-Making
bullet13 Change takes time
bullet14 Using picture codes
bullet15 Open-ended story
bullet 16 Barriers to change
bullet 17 Using drama
 

Part 4  Assessing Change
 

bullet Why evaluation is important
bullet Stages in evaluation
bullet Collecting information
bulletActivities
bullet Community mapping
bullet Structured group discussion
bullet Using checklists
bulletUsing questionnaires
 

Part 5  Teaching Tools
 

Part 6  Check your Facts
 

bulletWhat is HIV?
bulletHow does HIV affect the body?
bulletWhat is AIDS?
bulletWhat is the HIV test?
bulletHow do you get infected with HIV?
bulletHow is HIV transmitted?
bulletWhat is unsafe or high risk behaviour?
bulletWhat is safer sex?
bulletWhat is an STD or an STI?
bulletHow do you use a condom?
 

 
Resource List

 

top of pageWorking with young people on sexual health and HIV/AIDS - Resource Pack

Acknowledgements
Introduction
Health for us all
Different people, different needs
Selecting and adapting resources
 
Resources
 

bulletTraining manuals
bulletBooks
bulletTeaching tools and games
bulletComics
bulletVideos
bulletNewsletters
bulletResource lists and directories

 
Samples
 

bulletMemory Game
bulletCondom use staircase
bulletLearning about AIDS - Everyone's task
bulletTransmission runaround
bulletSnakes and Ladders
bulletThe Risk Game
bulletHIV Transmission Game
bulletCartoon strips
bulletFeelings and Attitudes
bulletPuzzle Game
bulletNegotiating safer sex
bulletCollage
bulletPicture codes
bulletDrama and Role-Play
bulletRadio
bulletPuppets
bulletT-shirts with comic strips

 
Organisations and suppliers
Index
Evaluation form
 

 

 
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